English Grammar: Adverbs

Definition:
Adverbs modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb tells more about a verb in the sentence. Adverbs are usually placed after the verb.

Example:
  1. Tom runs fast.
  2. He speaks clearly.
  3. She reads the book quickly.

Types of Adverbs:

There are many types of adverbs, such as:
  • Adverbs of Frequency: always, usually, normally/ generally, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, hardly ever/ rarely, never etc. For example: I always go to bed before 10pm.
  • Adverbs of Manner: carefully, slowly etc. For example: Listen to his speech carefully.
  • Adverbs of Time and Place: here, yesterday, then etc. For example: I ate a plum yesterday.
  • Adverbs of Relative Time: recently, already, soon etc. For example: I received a letter from you recently.
  • Adverbs of Degree: very, extremely, rather etc. For example: The test was extremely difficult.
  • Adverbs of Quantity: a few, a lot, much, very much, too much etc. For example: She talks too much.
  • Adverbs of Attitude: fortunately, apparently, clearly etc. For example: Unfortunately, I will be out of the office for the next 3 days

Rules:
1. They are often formed from adjectives or nouns be adding the suffix '+ly'.
For example: slow – slowly, quick – quickly, loud – loudly, sudden - suddenly, intelligent - intelligently.

2. To form an adverb from adjectives ending in 'y' change the 'y' to 'i' before adding the '+ly'.
For example: happy - happily, angry - angrily, busy - busily.

3. To form an adverb from adjectives ending in 'e' drop the '-e' before adding the '+ly'.
For example: feeble - feebly, true - truly.

4. Some adjectives ending in 'ly' need no changes.
For example: heavenly.

5. However there are exceptions.
For example: sly - slyly, shy - shyly.

6. Some adverbs do not end in 'ly'.
For example: much, fast, hard, never, straight.
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