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Showing posts from December, 2014

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Formulation of Linear Programming Models

Formulation of Linear Programming ModelsThe three basic steps in formulating a linear programming model are as follows:
Step-I: Identify the decision variables to be determined and express them in terms of algebraic symbol.

Step-II: Identify all the limitations or constraints in the given problem and then express them as linear inequalities in terms of above defined decision variables.

Step-III: Identify the objective which is to be optimized and express it as a linear function of the above defined decision variables.

Linear Programming

Quantitative Methods: Linear ProgrammingLinear programming is a mathematical way of planning, which involves three steps:1. Identify the objective function as a linear function of its variables and state all the limitation on resources as linear equation and/ or inequalities (constraints).
2. Use mathematical techniques to find all possible sets of values of the variables (unknown) satisfying the constraints.
3. Select the particular set of values (obtained in 2) that lead to your objective – maximize profit, least cost etc.

Advantages of L.P:- Helps in attaining optimum use of production factors.
- Can be used to solve allocation type problem.
- Can go a long in improving skills.
- Give possible and practical solution, subject to other constraints.
- Highlights bottle-hecks in production process.

Limitations of linear problem are:

- L.P models are based on the assumption of perfect divisibility of resources, accordingly the solution variables can have any value, where as some times so…

Sample Question About Operations Research

Questions: Briefly describe the application of operations Research in the following functional areas of management, namely finance, marketing personnel and production.

Answer: In the recent years, OR has entered successfully many different areas of research for military, government, service organizations and industry. We shall briefly describe some of the application of OR in the functional areas of management.

FINANCE: i) Cash flow analysis, long range capital requirements.
ii) Credits policies, Credit risks.
iii) Claim and complaint procedures.

MARKETING: i) Production selection, timing and competitive actions.
ii) Advertising media with respect to cost and time.
iii) Number of salesmen, frequently of calling of accounts etc.

PERSONNEL: i) Forecasting the manpower requirement, recruitment policies and assignment of jobs.
ii) Selection of suitable personnel with due consideration for age and skills etc.
iii) Determination of optimum number of persons for each service centre.


Assignment Problem

Definition: Assignment problems are specials class of linear programming problems which involve determining most efficient assignment of people to projects, jobs to machines etc. The desired objective is to minimize total costs or time required to perform the task at hand. The assignment is made on a one-to-one basis.

Comparison with Transportation Model: Assignment model may be regarded as a special case of transportation model. Here facilities represent the “sources” while the jobs represent the “destinations”. The supply available at each source is 1 i.e. ai = 1 for all i. Similarly, the demand at each destination is 1 i.e. bj = 1 for all j. The cost of transport ting (assigning) facility i to job j is cij.

Distinction between assignment problem and transportation problem: Assignment problem is a variation of transportation problem with two characteristics:
i) The cost matrix of an assignment problem is a square matrix and
ii) The optimum solution for the problem would always be suc…

Benefits of Models

The following are the major reasons why MS employs model in general and mathematical models in particular:
a) Models enable the compression of time.

b) Manipulating the model is much easier than manipulating the real system.

c) The cost of making mistakes during a trial-and-error experiment is much smaller when done on the model.

d) The cost of modeling analysis is much lower than if a similar experiment were conducted with the real system.

e) Models enhance and reinforce learning.

f) The use of mathematical models enables quick identification and analysis of a very large number of possible solutions.

A Model

A Model Defined A model is a simplified representation or abstraction of reality. A model can be simple but not represent the true situation.

Models are classified according to their degree of abstraction, into three groups:

Iconic (Scale): An iconic model, the least abstract, is a physical replica of a system, usually based on a different scale than the original. These may appear in three dimensions such as airplane, car or bridge models made to scale or a production line.

Analog:An analog model does not look like the real system but behaves like it. There are usually two-dimension charts or diagrams; i.e. they are physical models, but their shape differs from physical models, but their shape differs from that of the system. Some examples are:
- Organization charts that depict structure, authority and responsibility relationship.
- A map where different colors represent water or mountains.
- Stock market charts.
- Blueprints of a house etc.
Analog models are more abstract than iconic…

Computer Security : Part - D

How to Keep Our Business Computers and Online Information Secure:Make Staff Aware Of The Important Role They Play In Security:Our staffs are our front line of defense when it comes to security. Sure, hackers can access our network remotely and siphon off data without setting foot in our office. However, vigilant employees (consultants, partners, and vendors, too) can ensure that human error—which is a big cause of data security breaches is minimalized.

Educate Our Employees:If a computer on our network becomes compromised--whether the intrusion came from an internal fantasy-football e-mail or through a nefarious Facebook app that an HR administrator clicked on during lunch our entire operation is at risk. "You shouldn't be the only one vigilant about protecting your and your customers' information," Symantec's Cullen says. "Your employees should all be on the lookout, and you as a small-business owner should be there to give them some guidelines."
Keep e…

Computer Security : Part - C

How to Keep Our Business Computers and Online Information Secure:Following important things we can do to make our business computer (and DATA) more secure. While no individual step will completely eliminate our risk, together these practices will make our business computer’s defense strong and minimize the threat of malicious activity.
Conduct A Security Audit: If we don’t know what parts of our business are vulnerable or what data we have that needs to be protected, we can’t properly secure it. It is critical that we work with a professional to audit our entire IT infrastructure computers, network, and mobile devices—to determine what we need to do to prevent hackers from accessing our network.

Secure Our Hardware:Of the Seattle-area companies that were hacked, more than 40 had their physical premises broken into by burglars who grabbed electronic equipment. In one case, the gang snatched more than $300,000 in servers, laptops, cell phones and other items. Security cameras recorded tho…

Computer Security : Part - B

Computer Security Supports the Mission of the OrganizationThe purpose of computer security is to protect an organization's valuable resources, such as information, hardware, and software. Through the selection and application of appropriate safeguards, security helps the organization's mission by protecting its physical and financial resources, reputation, legal position, employees, and other tangible and intangible assets.

Unfortunately, security is sometimes viewed as thwarting the mission of the organization by imposing poorly selected, bothersome rules and procedures on users, managers, and systems. On the contrary, well-chosen security rules and procedures do not exist for their own sake they are put in place to protect important assets and thereby support the overall organizational mission. Security, therefore, is a means to an end and not an end in itself. For example, in a private- sector business, having good security is usually secondary to the need to make a profit…

Computer Security : Part - A

Why Businesses Need to Secure Our Computers (and How to Do it!)The use of personal computers in industry and commerce has expanded dramatically in the last decade. Large gains in employee productivity are possible as a result of this technology. However, ensuring the security of the processes and the privacy of data that these machines access is a very hard problem. Solutions that ensure security by preventing access by legitimate users are inconsistent with the gains in productivity that are possible. The general problem of computer security is being attacked by government and by academic and industrial research with some notable success.

The aim of this research’s is to review the principles behind these successes, to describe some of the remaining problems and to discuss their application in industry and commerce.

What is Computer Security?Computer security is frequently associated with three core areas, which can be conveniently summarized by the acronym "CIA":
- Confide…