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2015

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Formulation of Linear Programming Models

Formulation of Linear Programming ModelsThe three basic steps in formulating a linear programming model are as follows:
Step-I: Identify the decision variables to be determined and express them in terms of algebraic symbol.

Step-II: Identify all the limitations or constraints in the given problem and then express them as linear inequalities in terms of above defined decision variables.

Step-III: Identify the objective which is to be optimized and express it as a linear function of the above defined decision variables.

Linear Programming

Quantitative Methods: Linear ProgrammingLinear programming is a mathematical way of planning, which involves three steps:1. Identify the objective function as a linear function of its variables and state all the limitation on resources as linear equation and/ or inequalities (constraints).
2. Use mathematical techniques to find all possible sets of values of the variables (unknown) satisfying the constraints.
3. Select the particular set of values (obtained in 2) that lead to your objective – maximize profit, least cost etc.

Advantages of L.P:- Helps in attaining optimum use of production factors.
- Can be used to solve allocation type problem.
- Can go a long in improving skills.
- Give possible and practical solution, subject to other constraints.
- Highlights bottle-hecks in production process.

Limitations of linear problem are:

- L.P models are based on the assumption of perfect divisibility of resources, accordingly the solution variables can have any value, where as some times so…

Sample Question About Operations Research

Questions: Briefly describe the application of operations Research in the following functional areas of management, namely finance, marketing personnel and production.

Answer: In the recent years, OR has entered successfully many different areas of research for military, government, service organizations and industry. We shall briefly describe some of the application of OR in the functional areas of management.

FINANCE: i) Cash flow analysis, long range capital requirements.
ii) Credits policies, Credit risks.
iii) Claim and complaint procedures.


MARKETING: i) Production selection, timing and competitive actions.
ii) Advertising media with respect to cost and time.
iii) Number of salesmen, frequently of calling of accounts etc.

PERSONNEL: i) Forecasting the manpower requirement, recruitment policies and assignment of jobs.
ii) Selection of suitable personnel with due consideration for age and skills etc.
iii) Determination of optimum number of persons for each service centre.

PRODUCTION: i) S…

Assignment Problem

Definition: Assignment problems are specials class of linear programming problems which involve determining most efficient assignment of people to projects, jobs to machines etc. The desired objective is to minimize total costs or time required to perform the task at hand. The assignment is made on a one-to-one basis.

Comparison with Transportation Model: Assignment model may be regarded as a special case of transportation model. Here facilities represent the “sources” while the jobs represent the “destinations”. The supply available at each source is 1 i.e. ai = 1 for all i. Similarly, the demand at each destination is 1 i.e. bj = 1 for all j. The cost of transport ting (assigning) facility i to job j is cij.


Distinction between assignment problem and transportation problem: Assignment problem is a variation of transportation problem with two characteristics:
i) The cost matrix of an assignment problem is a square matrix and
ii) The optimum solution for the problem would always be suc…

Benefits of Models

The following are the major reasons why MS employs model in general and mathematical models in particular:
a) Models enable the compression of time.

b) Manipulating the model is much easier than manipulating the real system.

c) The cost of making mistakes during a trial-and-error experiment is much smaller when done on the model.

d) The cost of modeling analysis is much lower than if a similar experiment were conducted with the real system.

e) Models enhance and reinforce learning.

f) The use of mathematical models enables quick identification and analysis of a very large number of possible solutions.

A Model

A Model Defined A model is a simplified representation or abstraction of reality. A model can be simple but not represent the true situation.

Models are classified according to their degree of abstraction, into three groups:

Iconic (Scale): An iconic model, the least abstract, is a physical replica of a system, usually based on a different scale than the original. These may appear in three dimensions such as airplane, car or bridge models made to scale or a production line.


Analog:An analog model does not look like the real system but behaves like it. There are usually two-dimension charts or diagrams; i.e. they are physical models, but their shape differs from physical models, but their shape differs from that of the system. Some examples are:
- Organization charts that depict structure, authority and responsibility relationship.
- A map where different colors represent water or mountains.
- Stock market charts.
- Blueprints of a house etc.
Analog models are more abstract than iconic…

Computer Security : Part - D

How to Keep Our Business Computers and Online Information Secure:Make Staff Aware Of The Important Role They Play In Security:Our staffs are our front line of defense when it comes to security. Sure, hackers can access our network remotely and siphon off data without setting foot in our office. However, vigilant employees (consultants, partners, and vendors, too) can ensure that human error—which is a big cause of data security breaches is minimalized.

Educate Our Employees:If a computer on our network becomes compromised--whether the intrusion came from an internal fantasy-football e-mail or through a nefarious Facebook app that an HR administrator clicked on during lunch our entire operation is at risk. "You shouldn't be the only one vigilant about protecting your and your customers' information," Symantec's Cullen says. "Your employees should all be on the lookout, and you as a small-business owner should be there to give them some guidelines."
Keep e…

Computer Security : Part - C

How to Keep Our Business Computers and Online Information Secure:Following important things we can do to make our business computer (and DATA) more secure. While no individual step will completely eliminate our risk, together these practices will make our business computer’s defense strong and minimize the threat of malicious activity.
Conduct A Security Audit: If we don’t know what parts of our business are vulnerable or what data we have that needs to be protected, we can’t properly secure it. It is critical that we work with a professional to audit our entire IT infrastructure computers, network, and mobile devices—to determine what we need to do to prevent hackers from accessing our network.

Secure Our Hardware:Of the Seattle-area companies that were hacked, more than 40 had their physical premises broken into by burglars who grabbed electronic equipment. In one case, the gang snatched more than $300,000 in servers, laptops, cell phones and other items. Security cameras recorded tho…

Computer Security : Part - B

Computer Security Supports the Mission of the OrganizationThe purpose of computer security is to protect an organization's valuable resources, such as information, hardware, and software. Through the selection and application of appropriate safeguards, security helps the organization's mission by protecting its physical and financial resources, reputation, legal position, employees, and other tangible and intangible assets.

Unfortunately, security is sometimes viewed as thwarting the mission of the organization by imposing poorly selected, bothersome rules and procedures on users, managers, and systems. On the contrary, well-chosen security rules and procedures do not exist for their own sake they are put in place to protect important assets and thereby support the overall organizational mission. Security, therefore, is a means to an end and not an end in itself. For example, in a private- sector business, having good security is usually secondary to the need to make a profit…

Computer Security : Part - A

Why Businesses Need to Secure Our Computers (and How to Do it!)The use of personal computers in industry and commerce has expanded dramatically in the last decade. Large gains in employee productivity are possible as a result of this technology. However, ensuring the security of the processes and the privacy of data that these machines access is a very hard problem. Solutions that ensure security by preventing access by legitimate users are inconsistent with the gains in productivity that are possible. The general problem of computer security is being attacked by government and by academic and industrial research with some notable success.

The aim of this research’s is to review the principles behind these successes, to describe some of the remaining problems and to discuss their application in industry and commerce.

What is Computer Security?Computer security is frequently associated with three core areas, which can be conveniently summarized by the acronym "CIA":
- Confide…

Some Important Translation : Part-03

61. Let us wait to see the conclusion.
62. It is a pity, he is good for nothing.
63. To make free will public property.
64. Hungry dog is an angry dog.
65. To bring a calamity by one’s own imprudence.

66. Hunger is the best sauce.
67. Nobody listens to the advice of an ordinary man, however good it may prove in the long run.
68. Labour of love.
69. You must not see things with half an eye.
70. There are lees to every wine.

71. The pot calls the kettle black.
72. Like dog, like hammer.
73. Try your best, and you will win.
74. To see sparks before the eyes.


75. Out of sight, out of mind.

76. He runs with the hare and hunts with the sounds.
77. The devil would not listen to the scriptures.
78. To rob the robber.
79. Give him an inch and he will take an ell.
80. To build castles in the air.

81. Don’t nag me and leave me in peace.
82. The sheep return to the flock.
83. To teach the guilty a lesson by railing at the innocent.
84. Riches have wings.
85. Money begets money.

86. Habit is the …

Some Important Translation : Part-02

31. Money is not root of all evils.
32. A rotten ships in facts the flock.
33. Non-violence is a supreme virtue.
34. Every dog is a at home.
35. Everyone for his own hand.

36. Even a fool known’s his business.
37. To hoist with one’s own petard.
38. The spoilt child of rich parents.
39. Interest is sweeter than the principal.
40. Where there is a will, there is a way.

41. What God wills is for good.
42. Morning shows the day.
43. One swallow does not make a summer.
44. To blow hot and cold in the same breath.
45. A cat has nine lives.

46. To exact to the last penny.
47. Money makes marriages.
48. You will know now what’s what.
49. Out of debt, out of danger.
50. No pains no gains.


51. To be spoilt at early youth.
52. To strike the iron white it is hot.
53. One raven will not pluck another’s eyes.
54. Busy for nothing.
55. To give a dog a bad name and hang him.

56. Given the one, the other will follow.
57. To put all the waste buttons in the collection box.
58. What is spoilt to the …

Some Important Translation : Part-01

1. He never speaks ill of others.
2. My watch goes right.
3. You were a child when the liberation war started.
4. Bangladesh does not cherish aggressive mentality.
5. He has been released on bail.

6. Cricket became popular in our country for some years in past.
7. Banga Bandhu Jamuna Bridge is a world’s eleventh largest bridge.
8. Do you know the man who was run over by a truck yesterday?
9. Technology is the key to the national development.
10. The 21st February is a memorable day of our national life.


11. I shall be proud if I could get myself admitted in to BUET.
12. Without the occurrences of qualitative change in politics the Economics emancipation is not possible.
13. I can spend the whole day through book if it is interesting.
14. The poor boy is reading book sitting beside the flickering light.
15. The boy slept during crying.
16. We did not use boll point pen in school life.
17. He was walking swiftly and talking loudly.
18. This is my first coming in Dhaka.
19. Make resista…

Why most patents do not take medicine regularly?

Treatment of a disease will be effective only if the patient takes the medicines strictly as per prescription. Making the patient fully aware of the medicines is an important part of treatment.

Why most patents do not take medicine regularly?

Lack of precise awareness about the working of the medicines.Not understanding what the doctor or the pharmacist had told them.Disliking the taste of the medicine.Fear of addiction to the medicine.Problems associated with side-effects.Having to take innumerable medicines at the same time.Having to take medicine too frequently.Prolonged treatment.The waiting involved in hospitals.The cost of medicines.

Excessive use of medicines is certainty dangerous. But not taking the required amounts of medicines will lead to failure of the treatment. Taking the medicines prescribed for another is also dangerous, even if the symptoms appear to be identical.

Unseen Comprehension 17

Unseen Comprehension about English Language The use of English as the common language of the world has been growing so rapidly in recent years that no other explanation is needed to justify the efforts of the hundreds of thousands who every year set about studying English. It is in the interest of all those students think that English should be taught properly and accurately in accordance with certain clearly defined an recognized standards. It is with a view to preserving and diffusing such stands that examinations in English were instituted and the fact many thousands of students now take these examinations annually is n acknowledgement of just how successful the examining bodies have been in setting and upholding these standards.


Many students start out on their study of English without knowing of the various qualifications that can be obtained alas evidence of their success or of the benefits that can be derived from diverting their studies along the well-tried likes of a balance…

Unseen Comprehension 16

Unseen Comprehension about Tenzing Torkey Tenzing Torkey was born in the beautiful valley of Son Kumbu in Nepal. He began his life as a porter and his early years were more or less uneventful. In his boyhood Tenzing heard the stories of the inaccessible peaks of the Himalayas being attempted to be conquered by the Europeans. He felt within him the urge of sealing the inaccessible, doing the impossible and conquered.


He got a chance when in 1935 a European party came to climb the snowy Himalayan peaks. Tenzing climbed a number of peaks with them. In 1952 he again joined a Swiss party of mountaineers. That time he narrowly missed reaching the Mount Everest. And so it still defied the challenge of man. In 1953 with the greatest difficulty Tenzing and Hillary managed to climb up the last stretch of ice-clad slopes. After cutting the last few steps with his ice-axes, Tenzing succeeded in conquering the highest peak in the world.

The world was amazed to hear of the heroic achievement of …

Unseen Comprehension 15

Unseen Comprehension about Industrial RevolutionRight through the ages as man has progressed he has wanted more and more things to make living comfortable. In other words, as civilization has advances, so have man’s needs. Till quite recent times, these needs were supplied by skilled craftsmen working with their hands, At the end of the 18th century, however, people in Europe began make machines which could turn out goods more quickly and cheaply than human hands.


This Machine Age or the Industrial Revolution; as it is variously called, in a short time changed the lives of the people tremendously. There was flood of new ideas and new inventions which has continued to this day. The result is that we now live in wonderful world which science and industry together have built.
Now industrial progress has not been the same everywhere. The west Europe nations had a big start over everyone else, and only the U.S.A and Russia have been able to overtake them. In the industrial race we are far …

Unseen Comprehension 14

Do you have friends or relatives in other parts of Bangladesh? Do they come to see you? Do you sometimes go to see them? When they come to you, they are visitors. When you go to see them, you are visitor, Are you good with visitors? Are you friendly with them? Perhaps, one day somebody comes to your villages to your village and you do not know him. Does your friend know him? If nobody knows him he is not a visitor. He is a tourist. Are you afraid of strangers or are you good with strangers or are you good with strangers? Yes? Are you good with strangers? Then, perhaps, you should try to get a job working with tourists. When visitors come what do you like to do with them? Do you show them interesting places near your home? Do you show them your school or the mosque, the temple or the Thana Administration headquarters? Perhaps, there is a tank full of water, or an Edgah or canal teeming with fishes. If you are interested in these places, you would become good as tourist guide. But are …

Unseen Comprehension 13

Unseen Comprehension about a farmer Once there was a farmer in a village. He was very idle. He had a few plots of land. But he did not till them well. He did not sow seeds in time. So he could not get good crops. As a result, he was always in want of food.

The farmer had a kitchen garden near his house. One day he saw that the fencing could the garden was broken. He said to himself, “I shall repair the fencing tomorrow,” But he totally forgot it the next day.

Some days passed by. The farmer did not repair the broken fence. One day he sat idly before the house. He saw some goats entering the garden through the broken fence. He called his wife to drive the goats from the garden.


The farmer’s wife was cooking inside the kitchen. She came out and ran into the garden to drive away the goats. A dog was waiting outside the kitchen the kitchen. When the farmer’s wife went out, the dog entered the kitchen and spoiled some of the food cooked by her. The farmer hurried into the kitchen with…

Unseen Comprehension 12

Unseen Comprehension about a lionEveryday a lion went on hunting and brought home enough food. One day however, he could not find any animal to kill. In the evening, as he was returning home, he found a body jackal. He picked up and took it to the lioness.

“This little jackal is the only food I could find for you today.” said the lion. “Kill him and eat him. I did not kill him because he is only a baby.

“My dear, replied the lioness. “If you did not like to kill him because he is only baby, how do you think I can kill him? I am the mother of two babies that are just like him. No, I shall do him no harm. He shall be my third son.”


So, the lioness looked after the baby jackal. He lived with her two cubs and the three babies all grew up together.

The three little animals were always together. They ran about and played together. Sometimes they had little adventures together. They would go into the forest and chase any wild animals they saw.

One day a wild elephant came walking through the…

Unseen Comprehension 11

As they walked on and on Miles said to Edward. My lord, let us go to Hendon Hall, my home. It is in a village away from the city of London,” Edward agreed.

Miles and Edward rode on mules along the village roads. At last they arrived Hendon Hall. Miles said to Edward, “Look, my load, that’s Hendon Hall. The building has seventy rooms and we have twenty-seven servants.”

Miles took Edward by the hand and rushed into the room. He gave a seat Edward and ran to the end of the room. There was a young man there.
“Hugh, my brother,” greeted Miles as he ran to embrace him. “See I’m back, where’s our father, Sir, Richard and our brother Arthur? I have not seen them for years.”

Hugh recognized his brother and drew back. He was surprised and afrid too. “Mile is my elder brother. He must not be in Hendon Hall. If he is allowed to stay here he was be the master of this place.” He thought.


“You? My brother? Yes, I had a brother but he died in a battle.”
Miles was shocked. He said in a broken voice. …

Unseen Comprehension 10

Unseen Comprehension about the Czar of RussiaOne day the Czar of Russia was walking alone through the busy streets of Moscow. He had no body-guard with him. He went out to know about his people. Suddenly the Czar saw a tired man. He was dragging a handcart along the snowy street. There was a coffin on it for burial. The Czar came to know that it was the dead body of a poor solder. He was sad to think that the brave solder had laid down his life for the sake of his country. He was the worthy son of the land. So he should not be buried unhonoured.

The Czar then followed the dead body to the grave. Many people were passing along the street. They were greatly surprised to see the czar following the dead body of the poor soldier. The people were moved with the nobility of the good Czar. It also made them noble. They also forgot their rank and position. They at last followed the Czar and showed respect to the dead body of the poor soldier.



The love for the country is near go in vain. It has…

A MOSQUE IN YOUR LOCALITY

A mosque is a very important place where the Muslims remain engaged there religious activities. The name of my mosque is Shahee Zame Mosque which is situated in Durgapur union in dumuria.Shah Siddique is the founder of mosque.


The mosque is a two-storeyed building. Though the mosque is in a local area, It bears a wide spread name. Many devoted Muslims come here from different places for their religious purposes. In the mosque there are many Islamic books donated by Islamic foundations. The mosque has a well organized committee who always works for the over-all development of the mosque.

There are two mikes set at the top of the mosque. The people in the locality assemble in the mosque at the call of Azan through the mike. There is a big pond in font of the mosque. The people coming to say there prayers in the mosque use the water of the pond for ablution.

In fact, our mosque is of great use to our local people for their religious performances.

THE COW

Essay: THE COWINTRODUCTION: Of all the domestic animals the cow is the most useful to us. She plays an important part in our daily life.

DESCRIPTION:The cow is a four-footed animal. She has two eyes, two horns, two ears and a long tail. There is a tuft of hair at the end of her tall. Her body is covered with soft and short hair. She has teeth only in the lower jaw. Her hoofs are divided in the middle.

KINDS: There are many kinds of cows. They also differ in colour. Some are black, some are white, some are red and some are of mixed colour. Cows of one country differ from those of another country in shape and size.


WHERE FOUND: The cow is found is almost all the countries of the world. Wild cows live in jungles.

FOOD: The cow lives on grass. She also eats oil cakes, rice, bran, leaves and straw.

NATURE: The cow is a gentle animal. She gives birth to one calf at a time. She is very fond of her calf. The cow chews the cud.

USEFULNESS: The cow is a very useful animal. She gives us milk. Gh…

Unseen Comprehension 09

Unseen Comprehension SocratesSocrates taught that the man who is master of himself is truly free. By being master oneself he meant first knowing oneself- one’s faults and weakness and one’s good points, without making any pretence and without being vain and then being able to control oneself.

This knowledge of himself was what helped a man to be courageous and the courageous man has very important sort of freedom from fear. Socrates himself, because he was not afraid of the consequences, always felt free to teach what he thought was right, however unpopular this might make him with the powerful people in Athens.


No wonder all his pupils loved Socrates. But he made some dangerous enemies by his strange way of teaching and asking questions. Some of the rules in Athens did not like people to be encouraged to ask questions for fear that they would begin asking questions about what the rules were doing. So they accused Socrates of teaching young men wicked things, and leading them to throw…

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Unseen Comprehension 08

It is traditionalized that teachers are the most respectable persons in the world. Teachers are respected because they build up the nation. A nation cannot become successful in the battle of life without the direct assistance of the teachers.

In those days of the past teachers left no stone upturned to educate the learners and the students for the purpose of beautifying the aims and objectives of prosperous nation. Because of their sincere activities they were held in extreme, but the sense of teachership has been totally perverted by the second-hand participants, no doubt. Throughout the world teachers do many objectionable activities with derail the mind of the learners, students and scholars. Teachers become rapacious when they think that they are deprived of their just portion. They do not follow the principle of being an angel or a god. IT is really unethical, irrational and illogical. Why is a teacher getting more respect than an ordinary person? The answer of the question is…

Unseen Comprehension 07

Unseen comprehension about the sunLife on earth depends on the sun. Day after day we see its light and feel its warmth, but we do not often consider their origin. Yet there are many remarkable things about the sun. One is its distance from the earth; bout ninety-three million miles. A journey of this distance, even if it could be made, would take several hundred years even in the fasted rocket.

The sun is a large star. The planet earth is very small in comparison. One hundred and nine globes the size of the earth would be needed to stretch from one side of the sun to the other. The sun makes us feel hot, even at a distance of ninety-three million miles. This is not surprising. The temperature of the sun is about ten thousand degrees Fahrenheit. But we receive only a small fraction of this heat. The total heat of the sun could melt a column of ice a mile thick and ninety-three million miles high in one second.


The brightness of the sun is equally astonishing. The sun gives such a brig…

Unseen Comprehension 06

One day a mosquito flew into the room. He looked at the king’s bed. He saw how soft it was:

“What a rich and comfortable bed!” he said to himself.
And the mosquito went to the bed. He stood there, enjoying the delicious perfume coming from the bed. All on a sudden there came the bug.

“Who are you” said the bug to the mosquito. Where have you come from? This is the king’s bed. You can’t stay here. Go away at once.”

“Madam,” replied the mosquito, “that is not the way to speak to a guest. I am a traveler, and in my travels I have tasted the blood of many people. Yet I have never tasted the blood of a king. It must like honey. Now, as your guest, allow me to taste the king’s blood.”


“No,” cried the bug. You cannot.”

“Why not?” asked the mosquito. “Because,” the bug explained, ‘When you bite the king you will hurt him. He will then jump up and kill us all. So please go away.”

But the mosquito would not go away. He fell at the feet of the bug. “Please”, he begged. “Please let me stay to…

Unseen Comprehension 05

Shylock was a cruel man who lived in Venice. He used to lend money to people at a very high rate of interest. The people of Venice did not like him. For they knew him to be cruel.

There was in Venice at that a rich merchant called Antonio. He was very different from Shylock Antonio would always help people. He was kind. Shylock hated Antonio.

Antonio had many friends. They loved him. One of them was Bassanio. Bassanio anted to marry a rich girl, called Portia. This girl lived in another town. Bassanio needed money to go there. He also wanted to buy gifts for her. But Bassanio did not have money.


So he went to Antonio and said, “Can you lend me some money?”

Antonio wanted to help his friend. But at that moment all his ships were on the sea and he did not have money at hand.

Antonio went to Shylock and said, “Can you lend me some money for three months?”

Unseen Comprehension 04

The great scientist Newton had a pet dog. His name was Diamond.

Newton worked day and night in his room. His table was always full of important papers and books. He did not allow anybody to enter his room.

Newton worked very hard. He did not like to waste a single moment. He often said, “Time is the most valuable thing in the world and it waits for none.” So, he advised everybody to make the best use of time.

One day he was working in his room. A candle was burning on his table. He went out of the room for while.


Diamond was alone in the room. He jumped up on the table and the candle fell on the valuable papers. The papers immediately caught fire and were burnt to ashes.

The scientist came back and found the damage. Looking at the ashes of his paper ashes became sad. He sat down one the chair. He did not beat or even scold the dog. He only said, "Diamond, you don’t know what mischief you have done!"

Unseen Comprehension 03

Style in clothing change more rapidly because of fashion than because of comfort and necessity. Why are dress short one year and long the next? The weather does not vary that much from year to year. You might try to explain changes in fashion by using practical reasons. We could say for example that short dresses are cooler in summer and long dresses are warmer in winter. But these explanation are not satisfactory. Why not? Actually the answer is that the need for variety and the desire to be different are as important or more important than that practical reasons. Differences – even small differences are noticed immediately. Fashions usually change because people want to be noticed.


In recent years a new element has been introduced into fashion. It is the shock element. You shock people by doing something radically different such as by wearing something unique. Some women for example, were men’s clothes. While others were extremely short for extremely long dresses.

The Grameen Bank

The concept of the ‘Grameen Bank’ is the brain-child of Dr Muhammad Yunus, a professor of Economics Chittagong University. He is the founder and Managing Director of the Grameen Bank.


He understood that without improving the lot of the poor people, it is not possible to achieve economic development of the whole country. So, he came up with the idea of micro-credit and established the Grameen Bank. To the poor , this bank lends money which they can use in many productive activities. Proper steps are taken to ensure the best use of the money lent to the poor.

The system of lending money following this bank is very flexible. People can repay their installments from their profit. This bank has gained popularly across our country, particularly in rural areas.

The Grameen Bank’s success has been praised by many western countries. Some countries are following the strategy of the Grameen Bank to alleviate their poverty.

So, the Grameen Bank is now a model micro-credit bank in the world.

Extended Family

Paragraph: Extended FamilyExtended family means a large family consisting of grandparents, uncle-aunt, cousins, father-mother and their children. It has many disadvantages. An extended is full of noise and disturbance because there are a many family members. So, one cannot enjoy peace and happiness. One needs to think of others. So, one cannot enjoys much time to do a lot of work.


In a large family or extended family one has got much duties and responsibilities than in a nuclear family. So, one can not remain free from anxiety. He can not have much free time to move. In an extended family, especially a student can not enjoy much free time. So, he can not continue his studies properly.

Again an extended family is free from calm and quiet. So, one feels very boring. But there is no unmixed blessing in the earth. Extended family is not without its advantages.

One often can feel lonely and bored. If any member faces any problem, the other members come forward to extend their help him or…

Unseen Comprehension 02

Unseen Comprehension about Mughal Emperor At one time there were twelve landlords in Bengal. They were well-known for their love of independence. At that time Akbar was the emperor of India. This great Mughal emperor wanted that the whole of India should be under him. He conquered any parts of India. But Bengal was free. He wanted that Bengal should be conquered.


Akbar had many generals under him. He sent one of his generals to conquer Bengal. This general was called Shabaz Khan.

Shahbaz khan came to Bengal with a big army. He knew that Isa khan was the most powerful among the twelve landlords of Bengal. So he thought he must conquer the land of Isa khan. Isa khan was both brave and intelligent. He saw that his enemy did not have any naval force. Bengal was a land of rivers, so the naval forces was necessary to win a war. Isa khan used his naval force whit his army in attacking the mughal army. In the war the Mughal army was defeated.
When Akbar heard of this defeat he was very angry…

Unseen Comprehension 01

Unseen Comprehension  about House A house is a dwelling place. It can be used for other purposes, but usually, housing means providing man’s dwelling place. Houses keep us safe. In order to protect ourselves from heat and cold we live in houses. We live in houses in order to protect ourselves from rain and storm. People build houses to protect themselves from floods and wild animals. Houses keep people comfortable and happy.


Not all houses are alike. For example, houses are of different sizes, they are of different shapes. Houses are made from different things. Some houses are big and some are small. Some houses are long and narrow. Other houses are square or round. Some houses have one storey and some have many storeys. The roofs of some houses are flat. But the roofs of some other houses are sloping. People make roofs sloping in order to let rain water run away quickly. People build their houses with whatever things they can get easily. In order to build a small house in a villa…

Word List (Synonyms & Antonyms)

Synonyms & AntonymsWORD SYNONYMS ANTONYMS GLOOM Darkness, Sadness Light, Delighted, Gay INEPT Unskilled, Unsuitable Adept, Skilled, Dexterous OBSTACLE Impediment Supportive, Auxiliary, Helpful SCORN Despise, Disdain, Contemn Admire, Praise, Eulogize TEMPORARY